Nandakumar Venkatesan » Publication
Published 2009-12-22 Published on SciPeople2009-12-22 07:31:14 JournalJournal of Endourology
Polymers as Ureteral Stents
Abstract Ureteral stents find wide application in urology. The majority of patients with indwelling ureteral stents are at an increased risk of urinary tract infection. Stent encrustation and its associated complications lead to significant morbidity. This review critically evaluates various polymers that find their application as ureteral stents with regard to various issues such as encrustation, bacterial colonization, urinary tract infections, and related clinical issues. A complete literature survey was performed, and all the relevant articles were scrutinized thoroughly. We discuss issues of encrustation=biofilm formation, new approaches to their testing, polymers currently available for use, new biomaterials, coatings, and novel ureteral stent designs, thereby providing a complete update on recent advances in the development of stents. Finally, we discuss the future of biomaterial use in the urinary tract.